Directive 2012/29/EU (25 October 2012) on establishing minimum standards on the rights, support, and protection of victims of crime stipulates that all victims receive appropriate information, support, and protection and have certain rights in criminal proceedings. Victim means any natural person who has suffered harm, including physical, mental, or emotional harm or economic loss, which was directly caused by a criminal offence.Moreover, victim means family members of a person whose death was directly caused by a criminal offence and who have suffered harm as a result of that person's death. General services can provide information or support for all types of victims.
Child victims should be considered and treated as the full bearers of rights as set out in the Directive 2012/29/EU (25 October 2012) on establishing minimum standards on the rights, support, and protection of victims of crime and should be entitled to exercise those rights in a manner that takes into account their capacity to form their own views.The child and the holder of parental responsibility or other legal representative, if any, shall be informed of any measures or rights specifically focused on the child. In the application of this Directive, where the victim is a child, the child's best interests shall be a primary consideration and shall be assessed on an individual basis.Child sensitive approach, taking into account the child's age, maturity, views, needs and concerns, shall prevail.Children often require special support and protection because of the high risk of secondary and repeat victimisation, of intimidation and of retaliation. Child is considered to be any person below the age of 18 years old.
Victims of domestic violence
Under the Directive 2012/29/EU (25 October 2012) on establishing minimum standards on the rights, support, and protection of victims of crime, violence in a close relationship is committed by a person who is a current or former spouse or partner or other family member, whether or not the offender shares or has shared the same household with the victim.Such violence could cover physical, sexual, psychological, or economic violence and could result in physical, mental, or emotional harm or economic loss.It affects more women and children.
Victims of terrorism
Under the Directive (EU) 2017/541 (15 March 2017) on combating terrorism (Article 3), "victims of terrorism" means persons who have been the object of an attack committed with the aim of (a) seriously intimidating a population, (b) unduly compelling a government or an international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act, or (c) seriously destabilising or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organisation.
Victims of human trafficking
Under the Directive 2011/36/EU (5 April 2011) on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims (Article 2), "victims of human trafficking" means persons who have suffered as a result of the following offences: the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or reception of persons, including the exchange or transfer of control over those persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Victims of sexual abuse
Under the Directive 2012/29/EU (25 October 2012) on establishing minimum standards on the rights, support, and protection of victims of crime, sexual violence include rape, sexual assault and harassment (Recital 17).Victims of sexual abuse should be provided with specialist support which should include shelter and safe accommodation, immediate medical support, referral to medical and forensic examination for evidence in cases of rape or sexual assault, short and long-term psychological counselling, trauma care, legal advice, advocacy, and specific services for children as direct or indirect victims (Recital 38).
Information on compensation
Compensation is a type of support meaning financial recovery for victims of crime.State compensation shall be ensured by Member States on the territory of which the crime took place.Those victims who suffered intentional violent crime against person can be entitled for state compensation.The Directive 2004/80/EU (29 April 2004) relating to compensation to crime victims requires Member States to set up national compensation schemes and give access to all victims who suffered intentional violent crime, committed in their territories.